A key requirement when an individual starts the process of putting down ideas in a paper is to possess the knowledge and put it through to the audiences in a very consistent and clear manner. To achieve that, they must read widely and identify sources that are adequately addressing the subject.
You want to investigate the impact of communication during a crisis in an institution that has been bothering you.
Justifying Communication as Important during Crisis Scenarios
The institution you are attached has experienced recurring accidents and your thought is that not much has been done to inform the workers in terms of pre-crisis, during a crisis and post-crisis communication to keep workers alert always.
Establish the subtopics, in books, articles, and other important sources
Get involved, research in the libraries
Make short notes that you will use in your literature review
Here is a literature review outline to guide you:
This beginning section must be compelling and well articulating the theme and the thesis
An example of an Introduction with a Theoretical Framework
Poor choices in managing a crisis can damage to a reputation and drive it to losses. An image of an institution is thus helpful in building public confidence and trust. Crisis communication, therefore, delves into identifying effective ways that can be employed to manage a crisis. Such communication strategies also anchor on the creation of a positive perception of the affected institution to its external publics. Considerably, crisis communication serves an important role in allaying fears and reassuring the institution’s public stability thus affecting their perceptions and attitudes. Essentially this chapter will examine literature from other studies that have previously been conducted and are of relevance to this research. The chapter at the same time will highlight the research problem to create a better understanding of crisis management systems and how communication impacts it, looks at the theoretical framework that aligns with the topic plus the empirical and general literature reviews.
The Body of Outlining Literature Review
Accordingly, when using the America Psychological Association style, the outline of the review should contain the theme(s) ordered in a manner that obeys APA provisions in terms of their structures which essentially is supposed key points which are evidentially provable and summaries that are traceable to the body.
An apa literature review outline is presented:
Sample content of the body
General Literature with a subtopic
Communication serves as the foundation upon which all human relations are based and it is therefore important that a solid knowledge of communication and good communication skills be put into practice to help address grievances, customer relations and events related to fundraising and so on (Lennon, 2004). Furthermore, good crisis communication centers on good listening skills, good expressive skills and constructively managing a conflict. Most importantly, the methods that are chosen in terms of how an institution deals with crises should be strategic and must be confined to proper channels of communication. Effective communication requires a proper conduit that ensures that the process of passing information in times of crisis is not only smooth but also effective.
Here is another literature review outline example:
Crisis Communication Channels
Face to face is a channel whereby an institution engages in dyadic communication with its stakeholders to give information related to a crisis. The process also involves the institution’s staff member relaying important information to a partner institution, as well as the institution’s staff member to individuals in the community. Face to face enhances interpersonal communication and helps to solidify trust among the parties or the Publics to an institution.
Group delivery is basically a crisis communication channel centered on communicating with a small group and participating in smaller public meetings. This helps in effectively passing information and actively involving such groups in plans to curb a crisis or in repairing an image of an institution damaged by a crisis.
An institution may also opt to use public communication as a channel thereby involving public presentations to larger meetings. Such meetings may be arranged for the purpose of reaffirming an institution’s commitment to the objectives that attracted its publics to it. More so, the channel provides an opportunity to make a clarification on important questions that the public may want to be answered. In the face of a crisis, public communication plays an integral part as it nurtures healthy democracy within the institutions. It also remains one of the more commonly understood venues where an institution can deliver remarks to audiences. Regrettably, this channel is not commonly used by learning institutions despite the fact that it is less expensive as compared to channels such as usage of mainstream media like radio and television (Greg, 2015).
Mass media, such as radio, television, newspaper, and direct mail are other channels which have been largely used by the institutions to communicate in times of crises. These channels are however expensive but very effective given their accessibility and their reach. They are important in disseminating timely information to a much wider audience irrespective of wherever they are. In times of crises, the Public Relations practitioners strive to invoke their connections with the media houses so that they can be able to relay important information at cheaper or no cost at all. Importantly, direct mail can also enhance trust and confidence in the institution by the stakeholders.
Opportunities and what McLuhan predicted as a global village has come to pass with the advent of social media. News dissemination and access has completely changed and has been made possible any day any time any minute (Jim, 2015). Initially, the medium choices for the flow of information were dominated by the newspapers and television but the internet has since offered access to institutions interested in disseminating information without restrictions. Besides the provision of equal access, social media also supports democracy in truth given that people around the world use it to organize demonstrations and rallies. According to Jim (2015), companies and institutions are forced by the internet to employ a sense of transparency in approaching the information flow. Public Relation Practitioners, therefore, finds online media useful in attaining the global reach and in dispensing appropriate information during a crisis.
Many institutions are connected or rather have a connection to an internet which allows them to explore or to pass critical information to their publics. For example, Twitter has been incorporated in various institutions as formal means through which information are passed. Twitter is a social media platform and a communication tool that offers options in terms of provision of updates frequently as well as offering institutions with opportunities to sell their products and is quite important (Greg 2009; Jim, 2016). It is also considered as being informational because of its dynamism in offering the institution’s Publics with an opportunity to get information on deals and running themes frequently. In times of crisis, Twitter can serve the Public Relations Officers with an opportunity to make the first impression about the institutions they represent therefore this platform is considered as not only being professional but also as one which rarely dwells on issues of less relevance to the Publics (David, 2015).
Another outline for literature review:
Empirical Literature Review
The Role of Communication during Crisis Stages
Learning institutions forms the social fabric of our society besides contributing economically to the nation. More so, such institutions contribute greatly to the cultural development of a country as well as fulfilling the objective of contributing to and enhancing the educational wishes and dreams of the young people. Unfortunately, crises at learning institutions can impede a society’s progress and affect the security, financial stability, the wellbeing of its Publics and its image generally. Among the notable crises that occur in the learning institutions not excluding Kenya’s learning institutions are strikes by the staffs, acts of racism, fire outbreaks, rape, diseases, murder, and robbery, administrative and or governance issues (Holand, 2015).
The consequential results that are briefly presented are what summaries are. Therefore, the writer, in this case, must narrow down the reader’s attention to key details captured in a short form in this section besides restating the thesis.
Here is sample literature review outline for the conclusion:
Example of summarized information on the subject addressed earlier
Failure to recognize the problem and respond accordingly by an institution to the identified problem is one of the factors that deter effective communication during a crisis. It results in a complete failure to implement crisis communication plans which may be helpful times of a crisis. Creative thinking in terms of crafting effective messages for the institution’s Public determines the approach of risk management and should be a considerable factor in crisis communication (Wilberforce, 2015). It is imperative that consideration towards risk factors be built into existing activities and be characteristically a process of decision making. A management plan must be continuously updated and its communication philosophies changed. Additionally choice of wrong channels impedes effective of crisis communication, therefore, it is important that an institution chooses a channel of communicating crises that does not tarnish the image of the institution and further eroding trust publics to have on it (Drue, 2015).